Sunday, March 31, 2019

Poverty and Educational Achievement | Literature Review

mendicancy and educational Achievement Literature ReviewThis assignment will review the written report written by Anne westward ( 2007) entitled Poverty and educational work why do children from outset income families tend to do less puff uphead at school? The assignment will identify the key elements in the research and discuss the research methods used. The authors conclusion will also be discussed. tungsten (2007) claims that the evidence which she has found while researching the links between beggary and educational performance suggests that poverty alone is non the precisely grounds for junior-grade academic achievement. West argues that other components, outside of school, including the family environment, bring on a greater influence on a childs educational achievement.West researched galore(postnominal) articles in her quest to prove that low educational achievement is link to poverty. However, the research was not committed to using poverty as the only sour ce. Others factors were included such as income, social class and socio-economic posture. In attempting to obtain an explanation for the differences in educational achievement between children from low and naughty income families west examined pre-school, school, family and parental involvement.The majority of the research used to support wests parameter is vicenary. She has wipe outn data from institutions such as the Programme for Inter internal learner Assessment (PISA), the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD) and DfES.The OECD through PISA gathers data from 15 year olds in schools across the world in reading, maths and science. The quantitative data shows large differences in academic ability between pupils whose socio-economic status differed. However, a factor which seemed to greatly affect this outcome was the way in which some countries, such as Belgium Ger some(prenominal) and Hungary, divided and separated pupils according to ability. Thes e countries had a far greater fis certain(predicate) than countries with a comprehensive system of educating children such as Finland and Iceland (OECD, 2001 cited in West 2007)West argues that the quantitative data garner by the DfES ( 2007, cited in West, 2007) provides clear evidence that poverty and educational achievement are closely associated. The data showed that children who took advant mount up of free school meals (those from low income families) were less likely to reach the expected level in national tests than those from high income families (48% low income 77% higher(prenominal) income).West also includes eccentric to a key study by Gershoff et al (2007, cited in West, 2007). The Gershoff et al analysis of THE US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) suggests that children from higher earning families have better cognitive skills because their parents spent more money on educationally enhancing resources such as books and outings. These findings appear to be supported by a study from George et al ( 2007, cited in West, 2007) which indicates that 3 year olds from low income families have much poorer expressive language skills than children of the same age from higher income families.In wests discussion she suggests that that there are umteen reasons why children from poorer families do less well educationally than their wealthier peers. These reasons include family vivification and financial resources. However, it empennage be argued that the link to a poor family life and less financial resources are actually due to the lack of money which leads back to poverty being the reason behind low educational achievement.West discusses the many reasons she feels that children from poorer families do not achieve well at school. These include pre-school provision, or the lack of it, and early years education. West includes the provisions which the brass have put in posterior in an attempt to lessen the gap in progress levels between rich an d poor, such as sure start centres and early years provisions. Although these schemes whitethorn be of benefit to many they could be seen to exclude those people most in need. This could include families who put out in rural areas who do not have the financial resources to take public transport or run their own vehicle which would take their children to get a line the schemes offered.Parents may suffer from depression or have a disability which would make it either difficult to ensure their child could attend or difficulties in physically getting their child to the school. Therefore it could be argued that the children from low income families are at a disadvantage from an early age even when positive steps are put in place in an attempt to improve their educational outcomes.It may be the field of study that the children for whom these provisions would most benefit are the least likely to be able to attend for various family, medical and financial reasons. Therefore, it could be argued that the government should take further steps to ensure attendance. This could include, for example, chaperoned mini-buses to collect children from their homes and return them when the session has finished.West concludes that family involvement is a major factor in lessen the achievement gap however she also states the many obstacles that stand in the way of family involvement, especially those from low income families. Parents are often unable to swear out their children as they were also classed as being low educational achievers, they may work unsociable or long hours and many do not like the fact that their private, family life is, in a way, being invaded. West also suggests that financial and square resources are a significant factor in lessening the achievement gap. It could be argued that west is actually stating the open-and-shut as the whole paper is actually pointing to the fact that poverty is the briny cause of educational under achievement with all of the o ther factors interlinked.West indicates that the government focuses its policies on schools in an attempt to lessen the gap. However, she suggests that the money would be better spent on helping to raise the income levels of less well off families.Word count 979ReferencesDfES. (2007). National Curriculum Assessments, GCSE and equivalent attainment and post 16 attainment by pupil characteristics in England 2005/06(Revised) statistical first release 08/2005. London DfES.George, A., Hansen, K., Schoon, I. (2007). Millenium Cohort Study Cognitive Development, apprize 1. London Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education.Gershoff, G. T., Aber, J. L., Raver, C. C., Lennon, M. C. (2007). Income is not enoughincorporating material hardship into models of income associations with parenting and child development. Child Development , 78 (1), 70-95.OECD. (2001). Knowledge and skills for life first results from OECD Programme for International Student Assessment 2000. Paris OECD.W est, A. (2007). Poverty and educational achievement why do children from low income families tend to do less well at school? Benefits The Journal of Poverty and cordial Justice , 15 (3), 283-297.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

The Process Of Sending And Receiving Messages

The Process Of Sending And Receiving Mess be onsBusiness Communication is the process of sending and receiving piths. sound chat, however, occurs when item-by-items achieve a shared accord, stimulate a nonher(prenominal)s to take actions, and encourage community to think in new expressions. Communication occurs in homoy forms. You drop pick up the phone and engender a conversation with your executive program or leave her a voice-mail moral object if she is unavailable. You net occupy, instead, to write her a memo and send it by e-mail. Beside, she croup answer to your pass along in the form of her choice. Communication passel be formal or informal, inter come roughly or scripted, and internal or outside. In e very(prenominal) part of aff argument organization, intercourse provides the vital link between people and nurture. The ways we communicate is a learned style. As children we learn from watching our pa engrosss and other adults communicate.The conferenc e Process consists of a message being sent and received. The message may be verbal or non-verbal. The same basic principles moderate whether humans, animals, other forms of life, or combinations of these are involved. Your ch each(prenominal)enge, as an instructor, is to non merely communication with your students nevertheless to communication effectively. Whether you are speaking or compose, listening or reading, communication is more than a single act.The vector has an idea, Senders are individuals who react to situations from a unique vantage point, interpreting ideas and filtering experiences with their admit birth perception. Unique to individual transmitters, and integral to all the communication they engage in, is a backg orotund of accumulate attitudes, experiences, skills, cultural conditioning and individual differences that influences how they communicate. The sender encodes an idea or nip in haggle or signs that the pass catcher depart recognize and trans mits this message to the receiver.The sender transforms the idea into a message, when you put your idea into a message that your receiver ordain understand, you are encoding, deciding on the messages form (word, facial nerve expression, gesture), length, organization, tone, and style- all of which depend on your idea, your listening, and your personal style or mood.The sender transmits the message, to transmits your message to your receiver, you select a communication channel such as the telephone, a allowter, a memo, an e-mail- even a facial gesture. The receiver decodes or interprets the message to achieve understanding. In doing this, the receiver is besides acting as an individual from a unique vantage point, interpreting the idea harmonize to a particular personal perception of the message. The channel and medium you choose depend on your message, the location of your audience, your motif for speed, and the formality of the situation. This perception is the resolving pow er of the receiver unique background of experiences, beliefs, concerns and many an(prenominal) other factors.The receiver commences the message, You hand over no guarantee that your message exit actually get through. The receiver may not hear you, for communication to occur, your receiver must maiden get the message. If you send a letter, your receiver has to read it before understanding it. If youre giving a speech, the people in your audience have to be able to hear you, and they have to be paying attention.The receiver interprets the message, Your receiver must cooperate by decoding your message, absorbing and understanding it. indeed the decoded message has to be stored in the receivers mind. If all goes well, the message is interpreted mighty that is, the receiver assigns the same basic meaning to the words as the sender think and responds in the desired way.The receiver reacts and sends feedback to the sender, Feedback is your receivers response, the final link in the communication chain. After getting the messages, your receiver responds in approximately way and signals that response to you. Feedback is the key element in the communication process beca utilization it enables you to adjudicate the effectiveness of your messages. If your audience does not understand what you mean, you crowd out tell by the response and refine your message.Explain the communication process. How does one ensure that the mean audience has received the right message?As the crossroad animal trainer of a soon-to-be-launched product, explain the rules, the mediums, and the vehicles that you would subprogram the communication with your target audience to submit them to buy your product. Produce one (1) advertisement for your product.*Student may steady d let on whatever product that they wish.Formulating a messageCommunication is a dynamic process. Your idea cannot be communicated if you ignore, fail, or skip any mis utilisation in that process. Unfortunately, the process can be interrupted before it in reality begins-while you are try outing to put your idea into words. Several affairs can go wrong when you are formulating a message, including indecision nearly the content of your message, wishing of long-familiarity with the situation or the receiver, and difficulty in expressing ideas.Learn just somewhat your ear reserve passYou expect to create a bridge of words that leads audience members from their rent nonplus to your point. Before you can do so, you have to know something about your audiences current position. What do they know? What do they indispensableness to know? If youre addressing strangers, try to observe out more about them if thats impossible, try to protect yourself into their position by utilise common sense and imagination. Knowing as frequently as you can about your audience puts you in touch with the necessitate youll want to satisfy.Different in perceptionThe knowledge domain constantly bombards us with information sights, sounds, scents, and so on. Our minds organize this stream of sensation into a mental map that represents our perception of reality. In no case is the map in a persons mind the same as the world itself, and no two maps are exactly alike. As you view the world, your mind absorbs your experiences in a unique and personal way. For example, if you go out for pizza with friend, each of you pull up stakes batting order dissimilar things. As you enter the restaurant, one of you may notice the coolness of the air-conditioning the other may notice the aroma pizza.Overcoming perceptual barriers can be difficult. Try to predict how your message will be received, announce your receivers reactions, and shape the message accordingly-constantly adjusting to correct any misunderstanding. Try not to apply the same solution to every problem, but look for solutions to fit peculiar(prenominal) problems. Frame your messages in terms that have meaning for your audience, a nd try to find something useful in every message you receive.Language ProblemsWhen you choose the words for your message, you signal that you are a member of a particular gloss or subculture and that you know the code. The nature of your code-your lyric poem and vocabulary-imposes its own barriers on your message. For example, the language of lawyer differs from that of an accountant or a doctor, and the difference in their vocabularies affects their capacity to recognize and express ideas.To overcome language barriers, use the roughly peculiar(prenominal) and accurate words possible. Always try to use words your audience will understand. Increase the accuracy of your messages by victimisation language that describes quite an than evaluates and presenting observable facts, events, and circumstances.Keep your Audience focusedYou can also sponsor your audience by eliminating any information that doesnt directly contribute to your purpose. legion(predicate) ancestry messages contain too oft material. The sender, in hopes of being thorough, tries to explain everything there is to know about a subject, but most audiences dont need everything. All they need are a few pertinent facts, tolerable information to answer their question or facilitate their decisions. By safekeeping your messages as brief and as clean as possible, you make them easier to absorb. direct your Audience how new information relates to living ideasThe mind absorbs information by categorizing it into mental files. If you want your audiences to understand and remember new ideas, you have to target how those ideas are related to the files that already exist in their minds. When the connection with familiar concepts is lacking, the new material tends to get lost, to become mentally misplaced, because it doesnt fit into your audiences pick cabinet.By showing the audience how new ideas relate to familiar ones, you adjoin the likelihood that your message will be understand correctly. The refore, connecting new ideas to existing ones also helps make the new concepts acceptable.Minimize NoiseEven the most carefully constructed message will fail to achieve results if it does not reach your audience. As far as possible, try eliminate potential sources of interference. indeed make sure your choice of communication channel and medium does not interfere with your message. Choose the method that will be most in all probability to attract your audiences attention and enable them to concentrate on the message. If a written document seems the best choice, try to make it physically appealing and at large(p) to comprehend. Use attractive, convenient format, and pay attention to such details as the choice of paper and the quality of type. If possible, deliver the document when you know the subscriber will have time to study it.If the message calls for an oral spoken language channel, try to eliminate physical barriers. The location should be comfortable and quiet, with enou gh lighting, good acoustics, and few visual distractions. In addition, think about how your own appearance will affect the audience. An outfit that screams for attention creates as much noise as a squeaky air-conditioning system. Another way to void interference, particularly in oral communication, is to deliver your message directly to intended audience. The more people who filter your message, the spectacularer the potential for message distortion. quicken FeedbackIn addition to minimizing noise, giving your audience a chance to provide feedback is crucial. But one thing that makes backup communication difficult is the complexness of the feedback loop. If you are talking face-to-face with another person, feedback is immediate and clear. However, if you are writing a letter, memo, or report that will be read by several people, feedback will be delayed and mixed. Some of the readers will be enthusiastic or respond promptly others will be vituperative or reluctant to respond, an d revising your message to take into account their feedback will be difficult.When you plan a message, think about the amount of feedback you want to encourage. Although feedback is generally useful, it reduces your control over the communication situation. You need to know whether your message is being understood and accepted, but you may not want to respond to comments until you have completed your argument. If you are communicating with a group, you may not have the time to react to every impression or question. dish for question 2As a Product Manager of my product which is going to be launch soon, my product is a smart winding phone IPhone 5.This product can used by diverse age only for teenagers. This product can communicate with others country by using Face Time. This product is invisible because it is made by class. The product is using Os 5 software that created by me. To gain my product I will use methods, mediums, and vehicles. I will ask the producer to make some cloth banner or PVC banner or leaflet (with really a big font and a logo about my product, my contact number and name) and displaying it at strategic locations. I also will obtain the license from the city council before posting the advertisement. Thus, through this method, I will make sure them to buy my product. The mediums or carry that Im going to use to gain ground my product are internal communication, external communication and also individuals contact.The Methods that use to promote my productThe first method that use to promote my product is by Flyers. Nowadays, people will use flyers to introduce your business and to announce new offers or promotions. Flyers and leaflets are great way to promote businesses of all sizes. Flyer printing can be a great promotional tool for telling people about the products and services you offer. A flyer or a leaflet is a tangible sales promotion tool that will help your business to stick in the mind of the consumer.The second method that use to promote my product is online advertising. Nowadays internet are famous among teenagers because teenagers is a very fast learner. Online advertising is a very good method because everyone will know what you post such as, Facebook, Twitter, Google, Yahoo, MSN and others.The third method that use to promote my product is by Radio. Did you what is radio? Radio is a common thing that human will use it for everyday because radio will give us a lot of information about general knowledge. by means of radio I can advertise my product to world wide.The ordinal method that use to promote my product is fervent air balloon. caustic air balloons catch attention because their huge and they fly. The cost of a heated up air balloon is quite cheap. I will promote het air balloon before my product is launch.The fifth method that use to promote my product is Exhibition. Exhibition will get or got in anywhere in the world wide. Exhibition is the place for business man to promote he or her produc ts at there.Flyers Flyers dont cost as much as other advertising methods but can effectively get your message across to your target audience. By using flyers the clients will repay you about the product and promote awareness. Flyer printing can be a great promotional tool for telling people about the products and services you offer. A flyer or a leaflet is a tangible sales promotion tool that will help your business to stick in the mind of the consumer. There are many antithetic size for flyers. There are many printers that produce flyers in different sizes with the most popular sizes being A4, A5, A6 and DL.Online AdvertisingOnline advertising will need internet to transfer the advertisement into a post and send it to everyone in world wide. Online advertising is a very good method because everyone will know what you post such as, Facebook, Twitter, Google, Yahoo, MSN and others. The customer or client can order my product or ask / get information about my product, it can help me to attract customer. I also will use online advertising to promote my product through world wide and let everyone know about my product.RadioRadio is a type of communication to human. Radio can let human by getting some daily news, general knowledge and others information. If the customer is pastimeed in the radio advertisement, he or she will wrote down or listen the information carefully. Lastly, through radio I can advertise my product to world wide and others know about my product.Hot air balloonHot air balloon is an object that being release in the dispose and it will be floating anywhere in the sky. Hot air balloons catch attention because their huge and they fly. Anything that is visible to the eye and flying is incessantly a novelty but for it to be considered more than just a novelty lies in how the things look like. There are many different shapes for a hot air balloon, such as love shapes, round shapes and others shapes. These types of advertising balloons are becomin g increasingly popular as they never fail to catch the eye of any spectator young or old from the road. One advantage of following an advertising balloon pass is that it can be easily managed. All you will need is having your own balloon with your logo or brand made or rented all you are all good to go. All these make such balloons a very valuable advertising tool that businesses just cannot lay by the wayside.ExhibitionExhibition is the place that the business man or a producer will promote he/her product at there. you can use your event to hire your product more effectively than many businesses will do at a trade show. Think about the different display options that you can hire to show your products to potential customers at the trade show.ConclusionIn my opinion, Iphone 5 is very cool and have a lot of function which is interest by the youth and teenagers. For the moment, the interest of the youth towards the Iphone 5 is tremendous and they cannot wait for it. Lastly, I hope so my Iphone 5 can satisfied the user and the sales of the Iphone 5 can hit the target sales when it is being launched.

Spectrophotometry Techniques and Devices

Spectrop heatableometry Techniques and DevicesI. INTRODUCTIONSpectrophotometryInfr bed Spectrophotometry is designed to identify or even up the examine by beat absorption of infrargond actin otherapy of totter numbers in a realm of 4,000 to four hundred cm-1, at assorted wave numbers, when it passes by dint of the taste. This method wasting diseases the property that the invisible absorption spectrum of a substance is Characteristic of its chemic structure. Infr bed spectra ar shown in charts cargonworn by plotting the wave numbers on the abscissa and the contagions or absorbances on the ordinate.i. Spectrophoto heartbeatSpectrophotometry involves the exercise of a spectrophotometer. A spectrophotometer is a photometer (a device for measuring well-off intensity) that shadower step intensity as a function of the an nonate (or to a greater extent specifically the wavelength) of short. Important features of spectrophotometers are apparitional bandwidth and linear regularise of absorption cadence.Perhaps the nearly common application of spectrophotometers is the flierment of shed s offert(p) on absorption, but they give the sack be designed to measure diffuse or specular reflection factor.The use of spectrophotometers is not limited to studies in physics. They are excessively commonly use in other scientific fields much(prenominal) as chemistry, biochemistry, and molecular biology. 2 They are widely utilise in legion(predicate) industries including imprint and forensic examination.ii. DesignThere are dickens major(ip) classes of devices single carry and double beam. A double beam spectrophotometer compares the airy intensity amid two dizzy paths, one path containing a role adjudicate and the other the test sample. A single beam spectrophotometer measures the relative light intensity of the beam before and after a test sample is inserted. Although comparison cadences from double beam musical instruments are easier and t o a greater extent than stable, single beam instruments can save a larger kinetic contrive and are optically simpler and more compact.Historically, spectrophotometers use a monochromator containing a diffraction grating to produce the analytical spectrum. There are also spectrophotometers that use arrays of photosensors. Especially for unseeable spectrophotometers, there are spectrophotometers that use a Fourier change technique to acquire the spectral information quick in a technique called Fourier Transform unseeableThe spectrophotometer quantitatively compares the fraction of light that passes through a advert solution and a test solution. Light from the ancestor lamp is passed through a monochromator, which diffracts the light into a rainbow of wavelengths and outputs narrow bandwidths of this diffracted spectrum. Discrete frequencies are transmitted through the test sample. Then the intensity of the transmitted light is measured with a photodiode or other light senso r, and the transmittance order for this wavelength is whence compared with the transmission through a book of facts sample.In short, the rank of events in a spectrophotometer is as followsThe light source shines into a monochromator.A finicky output wavelength is selected and beamed at the sample.The sample absorbs light.Many spectrophotometers must be calibrated by a procedure k straightn as zeroing. The absorbency of a reference substance is set as a baseline value, so the absorbencies of all other substances are recorded relative to the initial zeroed substance. The spectrophotometer then displays% absorbency (the amount of light absorbed relative to the initial substance).2II. UV IR SPECTROPHOTOMETRYi. Ultraviolet spectrophotometryThe well-nigh common spectrophotometers are used in the UV and visible portions of the spectrum and some of these instruments also operate into the near- invisible neighborhood as well. distinct voice 400-700nm spectrophotometry is used extens ively in colorimetry science. Ink manufacturers, printing companies, textiles vendors, and many more, need the data provided through colorimetry. They comeback readings in the region of every 10-20 nanometers along the visible region, and produce a spectral reflectance curve or a data stream for alternative presentations. These curves can be used to test a new batch of colorant to revert if it makes a match to specifications e.g., iso printing standards.Traditional visual region spectrophotometers cannot sight if a colorant or the base substantial has fluorescence. This can make it unenviable to manage color issues if for example one or more of the printing inks is fluorescent. Where a colorant contains fluorescence, a bi-spectral fluorescent spectrophotometer is used. There are two major setups for visual spectrum spectrophotometers, d/8 (spherical) and 0/45. The names are callable to the geometry of the light source,observer and interior of the measurement chamber. Scientist s use this machine to measure the amount of compounds in a sample. If the compound is more concentrated more light will be absorbed by the sample at bottom small get downs, the Beer-Lambert law holds and the absorbance mingled with samples vary with concentration linearly. In the effect of printing measurements two alternative settings are commonly used- without/with UV diffuse to control better the effect of UV brighteners within the paper stock. seeks are usually prepared in cuvettes depending on the region of interest, they may be concepted of glass, plastic, or quartzii. IR spectrophotometrySpectrophotometers designed for the main invisible region are quite different because of the technical requirements of measurement in that region. one and only(a) major factor is the type of photosensors that are available for different spectral regions, but infrared measurement is also challenging because virtually everything emits IR light as thermal radiation, especially at wave lengths beyond rough 5m.Another complication is that quite a few materials such(prenominal) as glass and plastic absorb infrared light, making it ill-matched as an optical medium. Ideal optical materials are salts, which do not absorb powerfully. Samples for IR spectrophotometry may be smeared between two discs of chiliad bromide or clog upground knowledge with potassium bromide and pressed into a pellet. Where aqueous solutions are to be measured, insoluble silver chloride is used to construct the carrel.III. INFRAREDInfrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength between 700nm and cccm, which equates to a absolute oftenness aim between 1THz and 430THza yoke of more than three orders of magnitude.Its wavelength is longer (and the frequency lower) than that of visible light, but the wavelength is shorter (and the frequency gameyer) than that of terahertzradiation microwaves. Bright sunlight provides an irradiance of about 1kilowatt per square meter a t sea level. Of this faculty, 527 watts is infrared light, 445 watts is visible light, and 32 watts is ultraviolet light.The infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum covers the range from roughly 300 GHz (1 mm) to 400 THz (750 nm). It can be divided into three partsFar-infrared, from 300 GHz (1 mm) to 30 THz (10 m). The lower part of this range may also be called microwaves. This radiation is typically absorbed by so-called rotational panaches in bluster-phase molecules, by molecular motions in liquids, and by phonons in solids. The water in the Earths atmosphere absorbs so strongly in this range that it renders the atmosphere effectively mirky. However, there are certain wavelength ranges (windows) within the opaque range which allow partial transmission, and can be used for astronomy. The wavelength range from approximately cc m up to a few mm is often referred to as sub-millimeter in astronomy, reserving far infrared for wavelengths below 200 m.Mid-infrared, from 30 to long hundred THz (10 to 2.5 m). Hot objects (black-body radiators) can radiate strongly in this range. It is absorbed by molecularVibrations, where the different atoms in a molecule vibrate around their equilibrium positions. This range is sometimes called the reproduce region since the mid-infrared absorption spectrum of a compound is very specific for that compound.Near-infrared,from 120 to 400 THz (2,500 to 750 nm). Physical processes that are relevant for this range are similar to those for visible light.4IV. Infrared spectrometry(IR spectrographic analysis) is the subset of spectrum analysis that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It covers a range of techniques, the most common being a form of absorption spectroscopy. As with all spectroscopic techniques, it can be used to identify compounds or investigate sample composition. Infrared spectroscopy correlation coefficient tables are tabulated in the literature. A commonlaboratory instrument that uses this technique is an infrared spectrophotometer.i. Background and theoryThe infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is divided into three regions the near-, mid- and far- infrared, named for their relation to the visible spectrum. The far-infrared, approximately 400-10cm1 (1000-30m), fictionalization adjacent to the microwave region, has low zip fastener and may be used for rotational spectroscopy. The mid-infrared, approximately 4000-400cm1 (30-2.5m) may be used to culture the fundamental vibrations and associated rotational-vibrational structure. The higher vim near-IR, approximately 14000-4000cm1 (2.5-0.8m) can jar overtone or harmonic vibrations. The names and classifications of these subregions are merely conventions. They are neither strict divisions nor based on exact molecular or electromagnetic properties.Infrared spectroscopy exploits the fact that molecules have specific frequencies at which they rotate or vibrate tally to discrete energy levels (vibra tional modes). These smelling(p) frequencies are determined by the shape of the molecular potential energy surfaces, the masses of the atoms and, by the associated vibronic coupling. In order for a vibrational mode in a molecule to be IR active, it must be associated with changes in the permanent dipole. In bad-tempered, in the Born-Oppenheimer and harmonic approximations, i.e. when the molecular Hamiltonian corresponding to the electronic ground state can be approximated by a harmonic oscillator in the neighborhood of the equilibrium molecular geometry, the resonant frequencies are determined by the normal modes corresponding to the molecular electronic ground state potential energy surface. Nevertheless, the resonant frequencies can be in a first approach related to the strength of the bond, and the mass of the atoms at either end of it. Thus, the frequency of the vibrations can be associated with a particular bond type. Simple diatomic molecules have only one bond, which may st retch. Morecomplex molecules have many bonds, and vibrations can be conjugated, leadershipto infrared absorptions at characteristic frequencies that may be related to chemical groups. For example, the atoms in a CH2 group, commonly found in ingrained compounds can vibrate in six different ways symmetrical and antisymmetrical stretching, scissoring, rocking, wagging and involvedThe infrared spectrum of a sample is smooth by passing a beam of infrared light through the sample. Examination of the transmitted light reveals how much energy was absorbed at each wavelength. This can be do with a monochromatic beam, which changes in wavelength over time, or by using a Fourier vary instrument to measure all wavelengths at once. From this, a transmittance or absorbance spectrum can be produced, showing at which IR wavelengths the sample absorbs. Analysis of these absorption characteristics reveals details about the molecular structure of the sample. When the frequency of the IR is the s ame as the vibrational frequency of a bond, absorption occurs.This technique works almost exclusively on samples with covalent bonds. Simple spectra are obtained from samples with few IR active bonds and high levels of purity. More complex molecular structures lead to more absorption bands and more complex spectra. The technique has been used for the characterization of very complex mixtures.ii. revision and InstrumentUse a dispersive infrared spectrophotometer or a Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer. Before using the infrared spectrophotometer, ad serious it as contract in the operating manual. The linearity of the absorbance between 20% and 80% of transmittance (%) should be within 1%. The reproducibility of the transmittance should be within 0.5% in two consecutive measurements. The reproducibility of wave number should be within 5 cm-1 at about 3,000 cm-1 and within 1 cm-1 at About 1,000 cm-1. In addition, adjust the instrument so that a spectrum exhibits absorptions at the wave numbers as indicated in the following figure when measurement is made on a polystyrene shoot (about 0.03 mm thick).5iii. Preparation of SampleAccording to an appropriate one of the methods below,Prepare the sample so that the transmittance of the most intense absorption bands should be within a range of 20 to 80%. For the optic plate, use sodium chloride, potassium bromide, or atomic number 81 iodide bromide.Potassium Bromide Disk method acting Place 1 to 2 mg of a solid sample and 100 to 200 mg of dried potassium bromide for infrared spectrophotometry into an Agate mortar, quickly reduce to delightful particles protecting from moisture, mix Completely, and transfer into a die. Press the surface of the magnetic disc at 500 to 1,000 N/cm2 under reduced storm of not more than 0.7 kPa for 5 to 8 minutes, and use this disk for the measurement.Solution Method Prepare a solution of the solid or liquid sample in the Specified answer, inject the solution into a fixed cell for liquid, and use this cell for the measurement. Place the similar cell containing the same solvent for the Compensation beam. The thickness of the fixed cell is generally 0.1 mm or 0.5 mm.Paste Method Crush finely a solid sample and knead well with liquid Paraffin in the mortar. Hold the gap between two optic plates without any air gap, and measure.Liquid flick Method Hold 1 to 2 drops of liquid sample as a capillary film Held between two optic plates, and measure the liquid layer between the plates. If it is necessary to thicken the liquid layer, aim rings of aluminum foil or a similar material between the two optic plates so that the liquid sample lies between the plates.Thin Film Method Dissolve the sample in the specify solvent, and apply it to one optic plate. Evaporate the solvent by drying with hot air, and measure the thin film adhered on the plate. If the sample is a film with a thickness of not more than 0.02 mm, measure the film just as it is.Gas Sample Measurement Put the sample gas in a gas cell with a light direction of 5 to 10 cm in length, previously evacuated, under pressure specified in the individual monograph, and measure. A long cell with the light path of not shorter than 1 m is also used if necessary.iv. stately methodA beam of infrared light is produced and split into two separate beams. One is passed through the sample, the other passed through a reference which is often the substance the sample is dissolved in. The beams are twain reflected back towards a detector, however first they pass through a rail-splitter which quickly alternates which of the two beams enters the detector. The two signals are then compared and a printout is obtained.A reference is used for two reasonsThis prevents fluctuations in the output of the source bear on the dataThis allows the effects of the solvent to be cancelled out (the reference is usually a pure form of the solvent the sample is in)v. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopyFourier tra nsform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a measurement technique for collecting infrared spectra. Instead of recording the amount of energy absorbed when the frequency of the infra-red light is varied (monochromator), the IR light is head through an interferometer. After passing through the sample, the measured signal is the interferogram. playacting a Fourier transform on this signal data results in a spectrum identical to that from conventional (dispersive) infrared spectroscopy.FTIR spectrometers are cheaper than conventional spectrometers because building an interferometer is easier than the fictionalisation of a monochromator. In addition, measurement of a single spectrum is faster for the FTIR technique because the information at all frequencies is collected simultaneously. This allows multiple samples to be collected and averaged together resulting in an improvement in sensitivity. Virtually all novel infrared spectrometers are FTIR instruments.Summary of absorptions of bon ds in organic moleculesvi. Uses and applicationsInfrared spectroscopy is widely used in both research and industry as a simple and reliable technique for measurement, quality control and self-propelled measurement. It is of especial use in forensic analysis in both criminal and civil cases, enabling identification of polymer degradation for example. It is perhaps the most widely used method of applied spectroscopy.citation neededThe instruments are now small, and can be transported, even for use in field trials. With increasing technology in computer filtering and manipulation of the results, samples in solution can now be measured accurately (water produces a broad absorbance across the range of interest, and thus renders the spectra unreadable without this computer treatment). Some instruments will also automatically tell you what substance is being measured from a store of thousands of reference spectra held in storage.By measuring at a specific frequency over time, changes in the character or quantity of a particular bond can be measured. This is especially useful in measuring the degree of polymerization in polymer manufacture. Modern research instruments can take infrared measurements across the whole range of interest as often as 32 times a second. This can be done whilst simultaneous measurements are made using other techniques. This makes the observations of chemical reactions and processes quicker and more accurate.Techniques have been developed to assess the quality of tea-leaves using infrared spectroscopy. This will mean that highly trained experts (also called noses) can be used more sparingly, at a significant cost saving.Infrared spectroscopy has been highly successful for applications in both organic and inorganic chemistry. Infrared spectroscopy has also been successfully utilized in the field of semiconductor microelectronics8 for example, infrared spectroscopy can be applied to semiconductors like silicon, gallium arsenide, gallium ni tride, zinc selenide, amorphous silicon, silicon nitride, etc.V. USES IN ingrainedA technique to identify materials including organic polymers. An infrared spectrometer directs infrared radiation through a sample and records the relative amount of energy absorbed by the sample as a function of the wavelength or frequency of the infrared radiation. The method is applicable particularly to organic materials, because the vibrational frequencies of the constituent groups within the molecules coincide with the electromagnetic frequencies of the infrared radiation. Therefore, the infrared radiation is selectively absorbed by the material to produce an absorption spectrum. The spectrum produced is compared with correlation spectra from known substances.VI. SPECTRORADIOMETERSSpectroradiometers, which operate almost like the visible region spectrophotometers, are designed to measure the spectral density of illuminants in order to valuate and categorize lighting for sales by the manufacture r, or for the customers to confirm the lamp they unyielding to purchase is within their specifications. ComponentsThe light source shines onto or through the sample.The sample transmits or reflects light.The detector detects how much light was reflected from or transmitted through the sample.The detector then converts how much light the sample transmitted or reflected into a number.CONCLUSIONIn this topic which is infrared spectrophotometry I have introduced what is spectrophotometry. And it is used in a device called spectrophotometer which is explained in the above thesis. Followed on single beam spectrophotometer is also explained with its design working.Spectrophotometry is generally of two types UV IR spectrophotometry, UV spectrophotometry is explained in short but IR spectrophotometry is explained briefly. The intelligence information INFRARED is explained i.e. what it means, infrared region is explained in EM radiation. In EM spectrum there comes a topic infrared spectro scopy which is explained briefly with its reason theory. Its preparation of sample followed by conventional method of it. There is other phenomenon called FITR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) is a measurement technique for collecting infrared spectra. FTIR spectrometers are cheaper than conventional spectrometers. Uses application is also explained in the above thesis. At last but not the least its use in organic is explained. The idea of Spectroradiometers is also given, which operate almost like the visible region spectrophotometers. This is end of the conclusion of my thesis infrared spectrophotometry.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Chemical composition of Ambrette Essential Oil

Chemical penning of Ambrette Essential petroleumChemical base of the ingrained crude petroleum of ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.) from subtropical region of join IndiaRam S. Verma*, Rajendra C. Padalia, Amit ChauhanABSTRACTAbelmoschus moschatus (Family Malvaceae), popularly known as ambrette or muskdana, is an important aromatic and medicinal plant of India. The plant is widely elegant in tropical countries for their musk-scented sow ins usable in perfumery and medicine. In this study, hydrodistilled ambrette root necessity fossil inunct produced in subtropical region of normalityeast India was investigated utilize botch up chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC- green goddess spectrometry (GC-MS). A tally of 27 constituents, representing 90.4% of the total fossil anoint newspaper were identified. Major constituents of the inunct were (2E,6E)-farnesyl ethanoate (58.0%), (Z)-oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one (12.1%), decyl acetate rayon r ayon (4.8%), (2Z,6E)-farnesyl acetate (3.5%), (Z)-oxacyclopentadec-6-en-2-one (2.4%), dodecyl acetate (2.4%) and (2E,6Z)-farnesol (2.0%). Ambrettolide and its homologues, responsible for the characteristic musk-like odour, constitute 15.8% of oil composition.Keywords Abelmoschus moschatus, Malvaceae, ambrette seed, substantive oil, (2E,6E)-farnesyl acetate1. IntroductionAbelmoschus moschatus Medik. (syn. Hibiscus abelmoschus (L.), commonly known as ambrette, is native to India (1). It is cultivated in tropical regions of Asia, Africa and South America for their seeds. The seeds come been used as tonic, stimulant, car hourative, diuretic, demulcent, and for stomachic property (2). The substantive oil obtained by steam-distillation of ambrette seeds is a valuable material known for a rich, sweet, floral-musky, distinctly wine-like or brandy-like odor, which finds application in flavour and aroma formulations (3). Moreover, the seed intrinsic oil is used as anti-inflammatory, ana lgesic and antispasmodic drug. It is indicated against cramps and bowel disorders and similarly useful in the itching caused by insect bites. The leaves and the fruits of the plant are consumed in soups and the seeds are used as a spice (4). In concomitant to this, A. moschatus shows good antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities (5). The plant has been classified advertisement as an herb of dim safety by the solid food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the extracts are classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for their use in baked foods, bottom of the inningdies, and alcoholic beverages (6). The chemic composition of inhering oil and extracts of ambrette seed have been reported from different countries (7-16). The ambrette seed oil has a a lot smoother odor than synthetic musk compounds, and the major(ip) compounds responsible for the characteristic musky odor include ambrettolide (Z)-7-hexadecen-16-olide and (Z)-5-tetradecen-14-olide (17).Despi te a long history of uses in traditional medicines and in perfumery, information on A. moschatus from subtropical region of India is meager. Therefore, in this study, volatile oil composition of the ambrette seed grown in north India (subtropical condition) has been investigated.2. Experimental2.1. Plant material and isolation of essential oilThe ambrette seeds were a great deal from experimental field of CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, search Centre, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) in the month of December (20092011). The experimental site is located between coordinates 29.02N, 79.31E and an altitude of 243 m in foothills of north India. Isolation of the essential oil from ambrette seeds was carried out by hydrodistillation in a Clevengers type instrument for 5 hours. Isolated oil was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and stored at 4C until further analyses.2.2. GC and GC-MS analysesGC outline of the essential oil was carried out on a Nucon artillery chromatograph m odel 5765 fitted out(p) with DB-5 capillary towboat (30 m 0.25 mm internal diameter, film burdensomeness 0.25 m) and flame ionization detector (FID). The oven column temperature ranged from 60230 C, programmed at 3 C/min, using H2 as common carrier gas at 1.0 mL/min, a split ratio of 135, an injection size of it of 0.03 L neat, and injector and detector temperatures were 220 C and 230 C, respectively for Nucon gas chromatograph model 5765. GC/MS analysis of the essential oil sample was carried out on a Clarus 680 GC interfaced with a Clarus SQ 8C mass spectrometer of PerkinElmer fitted with Elite-5 MS fused-silica capillary column (30 m 0.25 mm i.d., film thickness 0.25 m). The oven temperature program was from 60240 C, at 3 C/min, and programmed to 270 C at 5 C /min injector temperature was 250 C transfer line and source temperatures were 220 C injection size 0.03 L neat split ratio 150 carrier gas He at 1.0 mL/min ionization susceptibility 70 eV mass scan range 40-450 amu. Characterization was achieved on the basis of remembering index (RI, determined using a homological series of n-alkanes, C8-C30 hydrocarbons), mass spectra library search (NIST/EPA/NIH version 2.1 and Wiley registry of mass spectral data 7th edition) and by comparing the observe RI and mass spectral data with the literature (18,19). The relative amounts of individual components were calculated establish on the relative % peak areas (FID response), without using a correction factor.2.3. statistical analysisTo compare of the examined essential oil composition of ambrette seed from subtropics with the reported compositions from other regions, seven samples (1 present study and 2-7 other regions) (8,9,11,13,14) were treated as operational taxonomic units. The percentage of nine major components, representing composition up to 82.8-89.0% of ambrette essential oil (decyl acetate, dodecyl acetate, (E)--farnesene, (Z)-oxacyclopentadec-6-en-2-one, (2Z,6E)-farnesyl acetate, (2E,6E)-farne syl acetate, (2E,6E)-farnesol, (Z)-oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one, and (E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesyl acetate) were used to determine the chemical kindred among the different essential oil samples by hierarchical cluster analysis using the average method (20). This software computes the hierarchical clustering of a multivariate dataset based on dissimilarities. The derived dendrogram depicts the grouping of chemical compositions as per their chemical constituents.3. Results and discussionThe essential oil yield and chemical composition of ambrette seeds observed in subtropics, north India is presented in flurry 1. The seeds gave 0.12 0.01% (v/w) of essential oil on hydrodistillation. However, essential oil yield was 0.150.20% in ambrette seeds under eastern Indian conditions (12). The resulting essential oil was analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Altogether, 27 constituents, representing 90.4% of the total oil composition were identified. Major constituents of the oil were (2E,6E) -farnesyl acetate (58.0%), (Z)-oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one (12.1%), decyl acetate (4.8%), (2Z,6E)-farnesyl acetate (3.5%), (Z)-oxacyclopentadec-6-en-2-one (2.4%), dodecyl acetate (2.4%), (2E,6Z)-farnesol (2.0%), (Z)-oxacyclononadec-10-en-2-one (1.3%) and (E)-nerolidol (0.7%).The essential oil composition of ambrette seed has been investigated earlier from different countries and mainly tail fin types of compositions are described. Garnero and Buil (1978) identified (2E,6E)-farnesol (39.0%) and (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (35.4%) as the major constituents of ambrette seed oil (13). Dung et al (1999) reported two different compositions, viz. (E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesyl acetate (67.3%) type, and (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (35.5%) and (E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesyl acetate (32.9%) type for ambrette seed oil from Vietnamese (14). However, ambrette seed oils from Ecuador and China are reported to have (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (59.1% and 64.22%) and (Z)-oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one (7.8% and 14.9%) as major cons tituents (8,9). According to an earlier study from Odisha (eastern India), the main constituents of ambrette seed oil were (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (47.6%), (E)--farnesene (9.6%) and (Z)-oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one (9.0%) (11). Moreover, to compare the examined essential oil composition with earlier reported compositions, the confine (%) of nine major components of different oils were subjected to the hierarchical cluster analysis. The derived dendrogram clearly gift dissimilarity based on the percentages of the constituents present among the different compositions (Figure 1). Thus, composition of the examined oil from subtropical northern India was closer to the oil composition reported from Ecuador (8). However, it was sooner different from China (9) and eastern Indian (11) ambrette seed oils due to the case (%) of other constituents, viz. (E)--farnesene and decyl acetate.4. ConclusionsIn conclusions, the chemical composition of ambrette seed oil produced in subtropics was rich i n (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (58.0%), and ambrettolide and its homologues (15.8%). The ambrette seed oil has a promising value for fragrance and fixative purposes. Based on the results of this study, it can be said that ambrette can also produced good quality essential oil in the subtropical conditions of north India.AcknowledgementsCouncil of Scientific and industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi is thankfully acknowledged for the financial support to carrying out the school (Project BSC0203). Authors are also thankful to the Director, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants for rise and the Central Chemical Facility (CSIR-CIMAP) for providing facility for GC and GC/MS analyses.ReferencesAnonymous, The wealth of India Raw materials National Institute of Science Communication, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research New Delhi, Vol. 5, pp 75-77 (1959).R. Sharma and A. Shahzad, Thidiazuran (TDZ) induced regeneration from cotyledonary node explant of Abelmoschus mosch atus Medik. L. (A valuable medicinal plant). World J. Agric. Sci., 4(4), 449-452 (2008).S. Arctander, Perfume and flavor materials of natural origin Arctander Elizabeth, NJ, pp 58-60 (1960).De La Ripelle, H. F. (2006). Les hiscus, tradition et modernite. Phytotherapie, 3,136144.M.Z. Gul, L.M. Bhakshu, F. Ahmad, A.K. Kondapi, I.A. Qureshi and I.A. Ghazi, Evaluation of Abelmoschus moschatus extracts for antioxidant, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities using in vitro assays. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11(64), 1-12 (2011).J.A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton Florida (1985).J.P. Buil, R. Laurent, J.P. Fournol, D. Joulain and P.Y. Hardy, Composition chimique de lhuile essentielle de graine dambrette. Parfums Cosmetiques Aromes, 10, 95-96 (1989).L. Cravo, F. Perineau, A. Gaset and J.M. Bessiere, Study of the chemical composition of the essential oil, oleoresin and its volatile product obtained from Ambrette (A. moschatus Moenc h) Seeds. Flav. Fragr. J., 7, 65-67 (1992).Y.J. Tang, T.S. Zhou, J.K. Ding and H.D. Sun, The chemical constituents of the essential oil from Ambrette seeds. Acta Bot. Yunnan, 12(1), 113-114 (1990).D.K. Mishra and S.N. Naik, Cultivation and processing of Abelmoschus moschatus. J. Med. Arom. Plant Sci., 22, 624-628 (2000).P.K. Rout, Y.R. Rao, K.S. Jena, D. Sahoo and B.C. Mishra, Extraction and composition of essential oil of ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus) seeds. J. Essent. Oil Res., 16, 35-37 (2004).P. K. Rout, K. C. Barik, K. S. Jena, D.Sahoo, and Y. R. Rao. 2002. A novel process for the extraction of fragrance components from ambrette (Hibiscus abelmoschus L.) seeds. Organic Process Research Development 2002, 6, 401-404.J. Garnero and P. Buil, Contribution a letude de la composition cbimique de lbuile essentielle concrete de graines d ambrette. Rivista Ital. EPPOS, 60, 606-612 (1978).N.X. Dung, P.V. Khien, D.D. Nhuan, T.M. Hoi, N.K. Ban, P.A. Leclercq, A. Muselli, A. Bighelli and J. Casanova, Composition of the seed oil of Hibiscus abelmoschus L. (Malvaceae) growing in Vietnam. J. Essent. Oil Res., 11(4), 447-452 (1999).T. Bernard, F. Perineau, R. Bravo, M. Delmas and A. Gaset, Extraction des builes essentielles Etude de faisabilite conduite tire lambrette. Parfums. Cosmet. Aromes, 84, 77-84 (1988).Molfetta I, Ceccarini L, Macchia M, Flamini G, Cioni PL. 2013. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. and Abelmoschus moschatus Medik Seeds production and analysis of the volatile compounds. Food Chemistry 141, 3440.B. Maurer and A. Grieder, (Z)-5-tetradecen-14-olide, a new macrocyclic lactone, and two unsaturated full-strength chain acetates from ambrette seed absolute. Helv. Chim. Acta, 60, 1155-1160 (1977).R.P. Adams, Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography /mass spectrometry. Allured Publishing Corp., Carol Stream, Illinois, USA (2007).http//www.pherobase.com/database/kovats/kovats-detail-Z5-12Ac.phpWessa, P. (2013). Hierarchical clust ering (v1.0.3) in free statistics software (v1.1.23-r7), office for research development and education. URL http//www.wessa.net/Table 1 Chemical composition of ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.) seed essential oil from north IndiaS. no.CompoundaRIbRIcContent (%)dS. no.CompoundaRIbRIcContent (%)d1-Pinene9339320.1 0.0915Decyl propanoate150215010.2 0.062-Pinene972974t16(E)-Nerolidol156015620.7 0.0636-Methyl-5-hepten-2-one9789810.1 0.0417(Z)-5-Dodecenyl acetate15881592*0.5 0.064-Terpinene10141014t18Dodecyl acetate160916072.4 0.255p-Cymene102210200.2 0.2519(2Z,6Z)-Farnesol169616980.1 0.006Limonene102610240.2 0.1620(2E,6Z)-Farnesol171317142.0 0.9371,8-Cineole102810260.2 0.2121(Z)-Oxacyclopentadec-6-en-2-one17192.4 2.438Linalool110010950.4 0.4622(2Z,6E)-Farnesyl acetate182218213.5 1.159Camphor11461141t23(2E,6E)-Farnesyl acetate1850184558.0 3.1310n-Decanol127012660.3 0.3524(2E,6E)-Farnesyl propanoate19190.4 0.1711Undecanal13041305t25(Z)-Oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one 1928 192912.1 4.8812Decyl acetate140714074.8 0.9026(Z)-Oxacyclononadec-10-en-2-one21281.3 0.7913(E)--Farnesene145814540.2 0.3327Linoleic dosage21292132t1410-Undecenol acetate149914980.1 0.10Total identified (%)90.4 6.25aMode of identification retention index (RI), mass spectral data (GCMS) RIb Experimental remembering big businessman (relative to n-alkane) RIc Retention Index from literature (18) dMean ( standard deviation) of three samples also known as (Z)-5-tetradecen-14-olide also known as (Z)-7-hexadecen-16-olide (= musk ambrette) *KI Kovat Index (19).Figure 1 Hierarchical cluster analysis of the essential oil compositions of ambrette (Abelmoschus moschatus Medik.) seed. 1 present study (2E,6E)-farnesyl acetate (58.0%), (Z)-oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one (12.1%) 2 (2E,6E)-farnesol (39.0%), (2E,6E)-farnesyl acetate (35.4%) (Garnero and Buil, 1978) 3 China (2E,6E)-farnesyl acetate (64.22%), (Z)-oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one (14.96%) (Tang et al., 1990) 4 Ecuador (2E,6E)-farnesyl a cetate (59.1%), (Z)-oxacycloheptadec-8-en-2-one (7.8%) (Cravo et al., 1992) 5 Vietnam (E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesyl acetate (67.3%), (2E,6E)-farnesyl acetate (14.9%) (Dung et al., 1999) 6 Vietnam (2E,6E)-farnesyl acetate (35.5%), (E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesyl acetate (32.9%) (Dung et al., 1999) 7 Eastern India (2E,6E)-farnesyl acetate (47.6%), (E)--farnesene (9.6%) (Rout et al., 2004).1

Mosquito Species Detection using Smart Phone

Mosquito Species Detection victimization Smart Ph bingleAbstract-According to WHO(World health Organization) re-ports, among from each one disease transmitting insects mosquito is the most hazardous insect. In 2015 alone, 214 jillion cases of malaria were registered human beingswide. Zika virus is another hurtful disease transmitted from mosquitoes. According to CDC report, in 2016 62,500 suspected case of Zika were reported to the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) stunned of which 29,345 cases were found positive. There be 3500 variant species of mosquitoes present in the world out of which 175 personas is found in United States. But scarcely few of them are responsible for these above mentioned fatal disease. Therefore compartmentalization between hazardous and regular mosquitoes are very important. For regular somebody with no expertise in this field would be almost unrealizable to strike the difference. Even for the mosquito-expert, identifying antithetica l species is a very tedious and duration consuming job. Hence in this paper, we confine tried to strainify 7 diametric species of dead mosquitoes with entire 60 patterns collected from Hillsborough County Mosquito and Aquatic green goddess Control Unit,Tampa Florida by capturing send off from smart call back tv cameras. With our approach we insufficiency to enable non-expert population to early identify the risk and act pro-actively. We pre-processed the image for removing noise and utilize ergodic fo comfort motley algorithmic rule to place varied species. Achieved good precision, think of,F1 measure and aggregate 833% accuracy. We are also planning to develop a smart-phone application which leave behind leverage this schooling good example and help in empowering population to identify mosquito species without some(prenominal) knowledge in this field.INTRODUCTIONOf all animals, mosquitoes are amongst the most deadly in spreading diseases. Mosquito borne disease s uniform Malaria, Dengue, West Nile febrility, and most recently Zika Fever have extracted devastatic tolls on humanity 1. Combating the spread of mosquitoes is an important health-care agenda across the globe, and several placements across the globe serve this purpose. For instance, one such organization is the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) is spread over 50 countries and conducts m whatever programs to educate citizens of the dangers posed by mosquitoes and how to control them. According to CDC report, there are about 3500 different species of mosquitoes in the world, out of which about 175 different species are found in the USA.Among programs designed to combat mosquitoes spread, identification of the character and number of species in any par-ticular area is very important. Across the world, numerous mosquito control organizations have dedicated personnel that lay traps to catch mosquitoes in specific areas, and dedicated personnel visually look at several ly captured type (via a mag-nifying glass) to identify the type of mosquito. It takes upto a minute to identify individually consume, and with more exemplifications, the succession taken to identify to separately one specimen can take hours, and naturally significant manual effort.Contributions of this Paper In this paper, we aim to de-sign a system that combines images from smart-phone cameras with machine learning algorithms for automatic detecting of the type of mosquito species from their images. Towards this extent, our specific contributions area). Building a selective informationbase of mosquito images We visited the Hillsborough County Mosquito and Aquatic flock Control in Tampa in Fall 2016 to collect numerous prototypes of mosquitoes that were captured in traps find up the county personnel. Subsequently, the personnel helped us visually identify the type of distributively sample. As a result, we collected 60 samples, that belonged to seven different species. hedge I presents our selective informationbase. Subsequently, each sample was imaged via a Sam-sung Galaxy S5 phone via quadruple angles (at the same indoor illume conditions) for a primitive of 200 images. This served as our database for subsequent layerification.b). Designing Pre- impact Techniques Generally, images are vulnerable to the different type of noises out-of-pocket to different environment condition and user expertise. Therefore, images necessitate to be pre-processed for any noise removal and also for smoothening. In the process of noise removal, we need to desexualise sure that edges and boundary of images are preserved otherwise images lead lose the key information. We utilise median leach as it flora very effectively when edges need to be preserved. This filter is wide used in image processing technique 2.c). Designing ergodic timbre Based Classifiers stochastic woodwind instrument is an ensembled supervised machine learning algorithm. It is a appe alingness of decision trees, where each trees has been grown victimization subset of develop dataset selected stochasticly. In most of the cases, it has shown significant improvement in accuracy as comparing to other classification algorithm. Apart from that, it plant life very well on outliers and noise. It handles larger dataset efficiently and quickly without over-fitting the archetype as provided a subset of preparedness set is selected for each split.3 4We conducted an extensive execution of instrument military rating for our proposed techniques.We judged our try on 60 image samples of seven different species. 10-fold cross establishment technique has been used and achieved 833% accuracy development RGB causes.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In section II, associate gos are discussed. Followed by section III where experimental set up and data collection process are chance ond. Section IV contains the dilate about preprocessing of image data, extra cting and selecting feature films, building the learning stupefy using classification method and different metrics lever-aged for showing the results. We talked about experimental evaluation and validation in detail in section V. Finally, dis-cussion and conclusion sections are VI and VII respectively.RELATED WORKThere are more studies which are dedicated to leverage the use of smart phone camera for image recognition. In this section we have empha size of itd few of the related and important works done.A. Related make for on look-alike acknowledgmentIn 5 system was developed for determining the effec-tiveness of soil treatment on plant try on using smart-phone cameras.In this paper, 34 images of plant leaves are captured using smart phone in two soils that is biosolids and unamended tailings. Then each images was preprocessed using mean, me-dian filter followed by segmentation into pixels.They extracted RGB,R,G,B,HSV and YCbCr features from the segmented pixels. Random Fores t which is a supervised classification algorithm was designed to detect the stress of leaves and achieved 91.24% accuracy.A 6 survey has been done on Pixel-Based skin vividness sensing techniques. They have applied various color berths like RGB, Normalized RGB, HSV and YCrCb for recognizing skin. RGB is the most widely used color spaces for processing and storing digital images.Wen et.al 7 has proposed image-based automated insect iden-tification and classification method. In this paper eight insect species have been selected for experiment. These insects were rooted(p) to retreive a non damaging kill of the insect and then they were placed on a white balance panel low the reflectance light base of a Nikon stereoscopic zoom microscope SMZ1000 (Nikon, Tokyo) with Plan Apochromat 0.5 objective. Images of these were taken by a DS-Fi1 color digital camera which was placed on the microscope. Features which had been taken in these are color, texture, invariants, contour and geometric . In color features, HSV color space features were considered. T Many classification algorithm i.e. minimum least material linear classifier (MLSLC), normal densities based linear classifier (NDLC), K nearest dwell classifier (KNNC), nearest mean classifier (NMC), and decision tree (DT) were used for testing and learning the theoretical account. Among these NDLC classification algorithm outperforms other classifier.1) Comparing our Work w.r.t. Related Work Our work is focused on capturing mosquitoes images from smart phone camera and using the captured image for culture and testing the learning stumper. In 7, authors have place insect species but it needs lab set up with microscope and advanced resolution digital camera which is not available in mob generally. We have extracted RGB features for classification which is most widely used color spaces 6.data-based SETUP AND DATACOLLECTIONIn this section, we have discussed data collection process our experiment.A. Data Collectio nWe collected dead mosquito species samples from Hillsbor-ough County Mosquito and Aquatic wad Control Unit,TampaTable I Mosquito Species and cast of SamplesSpecie NameNumber of SamplesCx Nigrip10An Quadrim6Ma Titillans7Ps Columpi10An Crucians10Ps Ferox7Cq Perturbans10Table II camera Specification photographic camera SpecificationValueSensor Resolution16 MPFocus AdjustmentautomaticSpecial EffectHDRCamera Light SourceDaylightFlorida. We carefully identified seven species, mentioned in Table I for our study.Since, dead mosquito physical properties like color, del-icateness etc changes as time takees. So, images of dead mosquitoes were taken in a single day to make sure envi-ronmental qualified are same while taking these images. A Samsung Galaxy S5 smartphone was used for capturing images in regular day light. Each sample image was taken based on the knowledge aware federation described on the mosquito and aquatic control weed control unit of measurement web site. A total of 60 images were captured for our study, having following camera configuration, mentioned in Table II.OUR APPROACHWe have implemented two steps in our approach. First, pre processing of image has been done for noise removal and feature pickaxe using filter like median,mean. Second, building a learning model using a classification algorithm based on random woodland.Here our main aim is to build a learning model for identi-fying each mosquitoes species.The challenge here we faced is the image size. Images which were captured from smart phone is of 2988 X 5322 pixels. We slimd their size to 256 X 256 pixels to decrease its data propertyality. To extinguish the noise from each sample we applied median filter technique.This has been flesh out in the next subsection.Since, our images were already in dark color.It is mandatory to throw setting and foreground in contrast for building the model sanely well. So, we did not use any segmentation technique as it converts the background into b lack.Here,we are using Random Forest, a supervised learning algorithm and used 10-fold cross validation technique for learning and testing. The process melt down of our algorithm is described in material body 2. For proceeding further, we need label image data for training the model. All images were tagged manually under the guidance of mosquito experts.Noise RemovalGenerally, digital images are susceptible to different type of noise. It can occur by several ways like capture, transmission etc. Accuracy of the result are affected disadvantageously by the same. There are many filters used to remove and reduce noise from image.Sharpening tense It refers as a enhancing technique which toweringlights edges and line elaborate in the image. In this procedure, original image is passed through high pass filter which extracts its high frequency components and then the scaled output of high pass filter is added to original image which results in sharpened image. 8 loaded Filter This fi ltering technique refers to replacing each pixel value in an image with the mean of pixel values of its neighbors which falls in the skid window of n*n size. This technique removes noise more effectively if large window size is considered.This is also called mean(a) filter. 8Median Filter It is a nonlinear filtering technique. The approach behind this filtering technique is to replace each pixel value in the window of n * n size pixel by the median of all pixel values in that particular window.It is very used in digital image processing and it preserves edges while removing noise. We have used this filtering technique with 3*3 pixels window size for removing the noise from our digital images. The output with median filter and without this is shown in Figure 1. 2Feature SelectionFeature extraction and survival is very critical part of any supervised learning algorithm. decline is about reducing the data dimensionality as the size of data grows and its dimension increases and becom es very difficult to handle it manually . And then the need of mechanisation comes into the picture.Feature Selection is a process of selecting those features which are most pertinent for our line of work and eliminating unnecessary, irrelevant and redundant features of data that do not lend to the accuracy of learning model.In our proposed model, we are identifying different species of mosquitoes. Each species have contrastive color. As we can see in Figure 3, each mosquitoes have similar shapes but differ-ent body and wings color.So,the correct color channels or the combination of channel is important to take into retainer for the features.Few of the color channels are RGB, HSV etc. RGB has Red, Green and easy channels. In RGB, each component supports a range of intensity levels from 0 to 255 (integer valued)9 .Here, we extracted RGB feature from the mosquito image data. Then for feature survival of the fittest, we applied Information-Gain attribute survival algorithm which is a good measure for deciding the relevance of an attribute. This feature selection technique generally helps in achieving high accuracy and using this we got 1000 features which serve as an input vector x into Random Forest Classification algorithmic program for species sensing. We calculated its precision, recall and F1-measure which is mentioned in Table IIITable III Combination of color channels accuracy comparisonCombinationPrecision take outF1-measureRGB0.8450.8330.834C. Classification MethodRandom Forest Algorithm Random Forests(RF) is an ensemble supervised machine learning algorithm. It consists of a set of decision trees h(x,i) i = 1, 2,, where x is a feature vector extracted from the smartphone image data and i consists of K integers which are autonomous identically distributed random vectors. Each decision tree predicts a class independently. A voting is performed on the results from each decision tree and at long last the class which gets bulk vote will be the fina l predicted class. The same has been explained in Figure 4 . Given a dataset set that contains N feature vectors, each consisting of M features, the RF algorithm builds the trained model using following stepsN samples are selected at random with replacement from the data set, for training the model of a particular tree.K features are randomly selected from the set of available features, where K M.Among the values for each of the K features drawn, choose the best split according to the Information exculpateIG(T a) of the attribute. Information gain is measure of decrease in entropy which is caused by splitting the samples on an attribute. T denote a set of training samplefor a single tree. ((x),y) = (x1, x2,.., xk,y) where (x) consist is a single sample and y is its class label. Theinformation gain for an attribute a is as followThe information gain for an attribute a is as followsIG (T a) = H (T ) v val(a)j(x T jTa= v)jH (x T jxa = v)Xxj j(1)10Here, xa vals(a) is the value of the a th attribute of example x. The randomisation is present in two waysRandom selection of data for bootstrap samples as it is done in baggingRandom selection of input features for creating individual base decision trees.Each tree will grow to its maximum size until the stopping criterion has not been effect and there will be no tree pruning. Once the forest has been ensembled, testing data sample will be labeled mosquito species class based on a majority vote among all classes from all decision trees in the forest.Once theforest hasbeenensembled,testingdata sampleis labeled withone oftheclasses(species1 species2species7)bytakingthemajorityvote i.e., it is labeled with the class which has been selected by maximum number of trees. In the RF approach, minded(p) a feature sample x to be categorise ad, the conditional probabilities for each class are computed by taking the average of the conditional probabilities inclined by the trees constructing4Figure 1 a) Original Image b) Imageafte r applying sharpening median filterFigure 2 Process description of our experimenta). Cruciansb). Columpic). Feroxd). Nigripe). Peturbansf). Quadrimg). TitillansFigure 3 Mosquito Color Imagesthe ensemble. These conditional probabilities are computed as follows. Given a decision tree T, and an input feature sample x to be classified, let us denote by v(x) the leaf node where x falls when it is classified by T. The probability P (mjx T ) that the sample x belongs to the class m, where m 2 fspecies1 species2 species7g (for 7 species of interest to this paper), is estimated by the following equationP (mjx T ) =nm(2)nwhere nm is the number of training samples falling into v(x) after learning and n is the total number of training samples assigned to v(x) by the training procedure. Given a forest consisting of L trees and an unknown feature sample x to be classified, the probability estimate P (mjx) that x belongs to the species m is computed as follows1L(3)P (mjx) =P (mjx Ti)L=1XiP (mx T )bywhere thjiisthe conditional probabilityprovidedthe itreeandiscomputed according to Eq.(1). Asaconsequence,forthesample x to be classified,the RFalgorithm gives as output the vector= fP (species1jx) P (species2jx) P (species7jx)gThe class(species) with the highest probability in the set(4)ischosen as classified class for the ith tree. The final class of our RF algorithm is the one which gets the majority vote among all activities from all decision trees in the forest 11. The work flow of the RF algorithm with pre-processing, training and testing phase is officially shown in Algorithm 1.3 12D. MetricsThe results of Mosquito-Species detection are shown in scathe of precision, recall, F1-measure and disarray hyaloplasm. Each metric is a function of the of the true positives (T P ), false positives (F P ) and false negatives (F N). The precision is the ratio of mighty classified classes to the total number of classes predicted as positiveP recision =T P(5)T P + F PRecall i s the ratio of total number of classes predicted as positive to the total number of positive classesRecall =T P(6)T P + F N5Figure 4 Work flow of the Random Forest AlgorithmThe F1-measure is the weighted average of precision and recallP recisionRecallF1 = 2 P recision + Recall (7) The Confusion Matrix (CM) is a table that allows the visu-alization used to describe the performance of a classification model. Each column of the matrix represents the instances in a predicted class while each row represents the instance in anactual class (or vice-versa) 13.Precision indicates the number of samples classified as a particular species actually belonged to that species. Recall gives us the number of species which are correctly classified. The F1-measure denotes the classification models accuracy.It is calculated as the harmonic mean of precision and recall. Confusion matrix makes the system easy to see how much predicted model is acquire split between different species. For example if a sp ecies is predicted correctly only 80% of the time, then this matrix will show how the algorithm confused its prediction with the other (wrongly classified) species the remaining 20% of the time.RESULTSOverview of Evaluation Methods In this paper, we evaluated the performance of our system using 10-fold cross validation that are standard for our problem scope.Cross-validation is a model validation technique for assess-ing how the results of a classification model will generalize to an independent dataset10-fold cross-validation divides the dataset into 10 subsets, and evaluates them 10 times. Each time, one of the 10 subsets is used as the test set and the other 9 subsets are put together to form a training set. Then, the average error across all 10 trials is computed for final result. It limits problems like over-fitting in the classification model.Results and Interpretations We used RGB feature men-tioned earlier to train our classification model. To evaluate its accuracy we used 1 0-fold cross validation technique and calculated precision, recall and F1 measure of each species independently. The evaluation measures of RGB feature are shown in IV have also shown it graphically in Figure 5. Confusion Matrix of the same is shown in Figure 6.Algorithm 1 RF-based Algorithm for Mosquito-Species detectionTraining Image dataset = Id Testing Image dataset= ItedRGB Features extracted from Training Image dataset =F tRGBRGB Features extracted from Testing Image dataset =F teRGBClassified Species from Images= M S opportunity that feature F belongs to Species M S =P (M SjF )No. of trees in Random Forest = 121 step 1 Pre-ProcessingMedian filters are applied to remove accidental spikes from Id and Ited.Features F tRGB and F teRGB are extracted from processed data Id and Ited obtained from (1).Step 2 TrainingInput Training data set F tRGB take Random Forest model to classify different species of mosquitoes.Select a bootstrap sample of size N from the training data. twist a de cision tree T using following steps.Select K features at random from the set of M features. recognise the best feature/split-point among the K.Split the node into two daughter nodes.Grow the tree to its maximum size that is 6 and let the tree unprunedStep 3 PredictionInput Testing data set ItedOutput Final Mosquito Species prediction M Ss.Select the same attributes used for training the model from testing feature set F teRGB.Predict the species from the model using features selected in the above step.6Table IV RGB Features accuracy of each species indepen-dentlySpeciesPrecisionRecallF1-measureAn Crucians0.8890.80.842An Quadrim0.5710.6670.615Cd Peturbans0.7270.80.762Cx Nigrip0.8890.80.842Ma Titillans

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Posthumous Letter to Georgia OKeefe Essay -- Okeefe Aesthetic Argumen

Documented Aesthetic Argument EssayI Know You Were construe A Posthumous Letter to gallium OKeeffeDear Ms. OKeeffe,May I call you tabun? I quality as if I hold out you and so it seems too formal to address you as miss, but I guess neither of these choices matters because you are dead, unfortunately. Despite that small-scale detail, I had to address you to let you knowI know. I belatedly spent some time with your painting, Red Canna, and to echo one of your critics, The enormous blossoms demand respect and admiration, and they captivate viewers, forcing those who stand close enough to shade their presence (Richter). And after literally feeling their presence and getting to know the work, I had to let you know that your secret is safe with me. I feel that you were sorely and irrevocably misunderstood. I speak up for decades, even during your lifetime when you were belatedly becoming famous and making a name for yourself on the wile scene, you were misunderstood. And you ne ver said anything. Or if you did say something, it was hilariously harsh, like this quote, I made you take time to look at what I saw and when you took time to really notice my gush you hung all your associations with flowers on my flower and you wrote about my flower as if I think and see what you think and see what you think and see of the flower-and I dont (Lynes). Establishing yourself as indifferent and above the gossip and speculation, you never said anything to clear the gloriole of misconceptions. You never corrected the critics and the naysayers, and while I respect that, I craving you would have - because now its too late, and youre still misunderstood.I think you let them all think you were independent. And for the most part, Im sure you were ra... ...ome human, and distinctly female to me, I feel and understand your whole kit in a different, and deeper way now. So, thank you for sharing yourself and your talent with me it depart be appreciated far beyond my lif etime, as it was yours. Sleep tight, Georgia.Your whizz and awed admirer,-------- ------- Works CitedAmarillo Art Center. Georgia OKeeffe and Her Contemporaries. Amarillo Amarillo Art Center, 1985.Drohojowksa-Philp, Hunter. effective Bloom The Art and Life of Georgia OKeeffe. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 2004.Lisle, Laurie. portrait of an Artist A Biography of Georgia OKeeffe. New York Seaview Books, 1980.Lynes, Barbara Buhler. Georgia OKeeffe and the Calla Lily in American Art, 1860-1940. New Haven Yale University Press, 2002.Richter, Peter-Cornell. Georgia OKeeffe and Alfred Stieglitz. Munich Prestel, 2001.

Contemporary Russian Thought :: Russian Culture Essays

Trends of Contemporary Russian Thought (1)ABSTRACT This paper foc physical exercises on the some recent period in the development of Russian thought (1960s-1990s). consummation from the cyclical patterns of Russian intellectual history, I propose to name it the tertiary philosophic awakening. I define the main tendency of this period as the struggle of thought against ideocracy. I then suggest a categorization of main trends in Russian thought of this period (1) Dialectical materialism in its evolution from later(a) Stalinism to neo-communist mysticism (2) Neorationalism and Structuralism (3) Neo-Slavophilism, or the Philosophy of National Spirit (4) Personalism and Liberalism (5) Religious Philosophy and Mysticism, both Christian Orthodox and Non-Traditional (6) Culturology or the Philosophy of Culture (7) Conceptualism or the Philosophy of Postmodernity. The Karamazovs argon not scoundrels but philosophers, because all real Russian people be philosophers...Dmitry Karamazov, in Fyodor Dostoevsky. The Brothers KaramazovIt is a property of the Russian people to indulge in philosophy. ...The fate of the philosopher in Russia is painful and tragic.Nikolai Berdyaev. The Russian IdeaThe fact that whizz rotter annihilate a philosophy . ... or that one can prove that a philosophy annihilates itself is of little consequence. If its really philosophy, then, like the phoenix, it willing always rise again from its own ashes.Friedrich Schlegel. Athenaeum Fragments, trans. Peter Firchow, 103.The fit period of the Soviet ideocracy, approximately from the early 1970s through the late 1980s, can be characterized as a period of philosophical awakening, to use the felicitous expression of the theologian Georgy Florovsky (1893 - 1979). Such awakening is usually preceded by a more or less complicated historical fate, the plentiful and long historical experience and ordeal, which now becomes the object of interpretation and discussion. philosophic life begins as a new mode or a new stage of national existence... One can feel in the times of that epoch some irresistible attraction to philosophy, a philosophical passion and thirst, a kind of magical gravitation toward philosophical themes and issues. (2) Florovsky refers here to the first philosophical awakening of Russia in the span of years from 1830s to 1840s roughly, the generation of Chaadaev, early Westernizers and Slavophiles, such as Belinsky, Herzen, Bakunin, Khomiakov, the brothers Aksakov, and the brothers Kireevsky. (3) Russias second philosophical awakening occurred in the first two decades of the 20th century, fol haplessing in the wake of the sunk revolution of 1905 and disenchantment of the most refined part of intelligentsia with the low intellectual level of populism, Marxism and other socialist theories.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Prion Diseases Essay -- Medical Prions Disease TSE

Prion DiseasesAbstractTransmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) ar neurodegenerative infirmitys that are notion to be caused by the misfolding of prion proteins. Prions are able to replicate in the absence of nucleic acids. TSEs include scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease, and Fatal Familial Insomnia. They merchant ship affect some(prenominal) un standardized animals, including humans. Currently, there are no ways to diagnose, treat, or recuperate TSEs, as much more research is needed before these diseases are completely understood.1. OverviewPrions are a type of protein found naturally in the brain and other regions of the primordial nervous system. The diseases associated with prions are collectively cognise as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Transmissible refers to their potentially infectious nature, and spongiform encephalopathies indicates the microscopic sponge-like deterioration of the brain caused by the progression of the disorders. While these fatal neurodegenerative diseases exhibit antithetical clinical symptoms, have different incubation periods, and even target different areas of the brain, they do share a number of characteristics. They occur in some(prenominal) animals and humans. During a silent incubation period, there are no perceptible signs of the disease, although depending on the specific disease, the length of the incubation period can exchange from a few weeks to up to 40 years (Baker & Ridley, 1996, 1). Due to their unique method of propagation (which will be addressed later), TSEs present a seem paradox in that inherited cases give rise to a disease that is transmissible but acquired cases do not produce heritable diseases (Baker & Rid... ...(Soto, 2006, 105).15. demonstrationOn a closing note, prion research is significant not nevertheless for possible breakthroughs in understanding TSEs, but because of the vast implications the very fancy of prions holds for the entire field of biology. As the first substance discovered that can replicate in the absence of nucleic acids, prions defy one of the most central biological doctrines. The similarities between TSEs and dementia disorders like Alzheimers disease and findings of proteins with a prion-like behavior in yeast and other fungi (Soto, 2006, 143) suggest that prions and proteins like them may be much more common than ever judge (Soto, 2006, 154).10BibliographyBaker, Harry F., & Ridley, Rosalind M. (1996). Prion Diseases. Totowa, New Jersey HumanaPress.Soto, Claudio. (2006). Prions The New Biology of Proteins. Boca Raton, Florida CRC Press.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Bias In Printmedia :: essays research papers

Print media provides its readers with information, but what the reader very often does not require a go at it is the bias within the names. Bias is not so easily recognized. Writers give birth the gift to blend the bias in with their work. It is so well done, that in order to see the bias, one must thoroughly analyze the article. A person must also know what the pillow slips of bias ar and how they atomic number 18 use. There are many different types of bias that are used in health related articles such as statistics and congregation counts, article choice and bank note, and through omission. Print media demonstrates these types of bias in many articles. matchless method of bias being used is print media is through statistics and crowd counts. A source can manipulate the reader into thinking that the results are very high or very low in roughly cases. In The Toronto Star on October 23, 1999, the article Pregnancy biggest threat to women, V.N. says uses statistics to s ubmit an estimation, an estimated 585,000 women do every year. This article explains how pregnancy affects many women. By using this statistic, it gives the reader an approximation, but not an exact number. This is used to call for the reader think that the statistic is very high. Another article in The Toronto Star, Tamil health crisis probed, on October 29, 1999,demostrates bias by saying, At least 70,000 mess. The article is talking slightly the Tamil community and how 70,000 people have been affected, but it does not give the amount of people in that community. This type of bias is often used in print media to make an article more classic than it is.Bias through word choice and tone is often used in print media sources. By choosing specific words, the writer can easily influence the readers opinion about the article. Certain words give the reader a different meaning. In an article, Health care to receive $3.8 billion injection, in The Toronto Star, on October 22, 1999, the Governor, Hilary Weston, is reading a passage from a throne speech presumptuousness by the government to introduce a Patients pinnacle of Rights. By using the word, throne, the writer suggests that the speech given is very important. During this speech, at that place is a caucus chuckle from a Liberal at the meeting. The writer uses caucus to indicate that it is more than a normal chuckle during an important speech.

History of the Mandan Indian Tribe Essay -- American History, native a

The Mandan are an indigenous phratry native to North America. The Mandans are known for being one of the earliest tribes to live on the great plains of the Midwest. Unlike new(prenominal) plains Indians the Mandan were a settled tribe who lived on the Big Bend of the Missouri River in what is now called North Dakota. temporary hookup most tribes that lived in the plains were hunter/gatherers who lived a nomadic lifestyle pursual their food, the Mandan were planters living mostly off their crops. Warriors left once a yr in hunting groups to go out into the plains in search for Buffalo, which was non only their major meat source, but was also used for clothing and shelter as well.Although the Mandan may differ from other Plains Indians in the circumstance that they live in a rooted community, they share many traditions with the dwell tribes. They believe in a great spirit, they use medicine bundles, divine pipes, have a sweat lodge and conduct many sacred and spiritual ceremo nies. The Mandan have a observation like no other recorded that is exclusive to their tribe called the Okipa or Okeepa. The Okipa is a four-day Lords Supper that is held annually in spring or summer. According to George Catlin, a painter, who spent period with the Mandan tribe in 1832, because the Mandan tribe had no official record or way to mark specific days, once the Willow leaves reached full surface it was time for the ceremony.The purpose of the Okipa was to reaffirm the bond between the people and the lifelike world.(). More specifically the ceremony was held as a celebration of the Mee-nee-ro-ka-ha, it was for the bounce of the Bel-lohck-na-pic and for initiating young men into manhood.Mee-nee-ro-ka-ha translated means the sinking down of settling waters. ace of the majo... ...hed the last race and made his way home the end of the ceremony may begin.The Okipa ordain enter the medicine lodge alone and will bring out with him all of the offerings Mohk-Muck-a-nah coll ected from the villagers on the first day. Then, along with the entire village he walks up to the top of a drib and throws the tools into the water. The tools are offered as a sacrifice to the water, exactly at sunbathe down on the fourth day, closing out the Okipa ceremony.In 1837 a smallpox epidemic almost completely wiped out the Mandan tribe divergence only 125 out if 1600 Mandans alive. In 1845 the surviving members of the Mandan tribe moved to Fort Berthold Reservation. The last Okipa ceremony was held in 1890, after that the army officer in charge of the Fort Berthold Reservation banned the ceremony and although it was lifted in 1934 the Okipa ceremony was never held again.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Unusual People :: essays research papers

The ab break unusual person I contend     My boyfriend is a very(prenominal) interesting character. Caring, considerate, funny and crazy be just s few word I could use to expoposture my boyfriend. Each day is exciting and interesting when it is spent with him. My boyfriend Brent, is by far the most unusual person I know.Brent is very playful. He often reminds me of a little kid. I think the most attractive aspect of him is his ability to laugh and have fun. Brent does not let me tease him without acquire back at me, and most of the snip it is twice the payback. Sometimes If I am in the bathroom getting ready for the day and he is in the shower, he will drub handfuls of water out at me. I act like it bothers me except in actuality I think it is wonderful. He also thinks that he is a pro wrestler and I am his opponent. I never pull through of course, but it is fun trying. Brent also knows that I am very jumpy and I can be scared easily. Because he has thi s information he often hides behind the corner only to jump out and scare me when I walk by, it works every time.Although he is in the main playful, He is unflustered quit the charmer. Brent is very sensitive and makes me tincture wonderful. I never feel like I am pushed a side and he makes sure that I always feel special. He has a way of bringing out the best in me. He will clean the house while I am at class, change the channel to Animal Planet (because it is my favorite), ask if I make something when he goes to the kitchen, and makes sure I am always happy. He has a very light temper and never looses his cool with me. He likes to chew out things out and he is very considerate about my feelings.Brent still does not forget about his manly side . He has the customary need to lose himself for hours at a time playing football and hockey on the Nintendo. He reads sports illustrated, needs to watch ESPN and play head game football on the Internet. I do not understand wherefore t hese things are so important. But, I think that is why there is a common saying that goes," Men are from Mars and Women are from genus Venus". He enjoys the outdoors and yet he can just sit and relax for a day in the house.

Analysis of the Spike Lees Movie Do the Right Thing Essay -- Movies F

compendium of the transfix Lees Movie Do the by rights functionFor my shot analytic thinking I chose a shot from the Spike Lee Movie Do the Right Thing. This is the second shot next the climactic riot scene. It features Da Mayor and Mother Sister reacting to the hellacious events of the previous night. The block was just devastated by a melee that broke fall out because the police killed Radio Raheem subsequently he and Sal got in an altercation that was triggered by the volume of Radio Raheems boom box. Though at a very superficial level the fight was about the loud stereo, the authoritative significance of the fight had more than to do with the culmination of anger and focus between the characters of the film caused by prejudice and ignorance. This paper will study this shot from a proficient standpoint. I chose t... Analysis of the Spike Lees Movie Do the Right Thing Essay -- Movies F Analysis of the Spike Lees Movie Do the Right ThingFor my shot anal ysis I chose a shot from the Spike Lee Movie Do the Right Thing. This is the second shot following the climactic riot scene. It features Da Mayor and Mother Sister reacting to the hellacious events of the previous night. The block was just devastated by a melee that broke out because the police killed Radio Raheem after he and Sal got in an altercation that was triggered by the volume of Radio Raheems boom box. Though at a very superficial level the fight was about the loud stereo, the real significance of the fight had more to do with the culmination of anger and tension between the characters of the film caused by prejudice and ignorance. This paper will analyze this shot from a technical standpoint. I chose t...